La géopolitique du pétrole, la suprématie et le pouvoir
The aim of this paper is to discuss the challenges of energy which are derived from this planetary battle. This latter, in fact, pushes the consuming countries, from one side, to ensure the access to the resources of energy, whether by military forces (United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan) orAby economic strength (Brazil, Sweden, Germany) in terms of renewable energy. On the other side, the producing countries, particularly the Arabs, unfortunately, benefit from this advantage (disproportionate distribution of the world energetic resources). In this extent, these Arab states, members of the OPEC, never managed to develop a diversified economy, find themselves in a great dependence via oil revenues (ensured by their legitimacy, politic sustainability, and to the social cohesion). We discuss the economic and political consequences of the oil race between the United States and China. Are we heading towards a reconfiguration of the new roles of power in regions with high potential energy (Middle East, Africa, Latin America and Central Asia) where state militarily and economically the major world powers? With the new situation of popular protests that shook the Arab world, can we see a reversal of the relationship of forces in favor of the oil producing countries? What would be the impact of the Arab Spring on the oil industry and the oil market? And if the search for new energy sources (nonconventional oil, renewable energy...) would be realized technically and economically to the West, the black gold Arabic would keep its influence on European economies, the U.S. and Asian?